“Is any among you sick? Let him call for the presbyters [i.e. “priests”] of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick person, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven” (James 5:14-15).
“In this sacrament the whole Church commends those who are ill to the suffering and glorified Lord, that he may raise them up and save them. Through the anointing with the blessed oil by the priest and through his prayers, Christ gives health and strength to the soul and sometimes to the body when we are in danger of death from sickness, accident, or old age.
…Through this sacrament the Church also exhorts the sick to contribute to the good of the People of God by freely uniting themselves to the Passion and death of Christ.
…The anointing of the sick can be administered to a member of the faithful who, having reached the use of reason, begins to be in danger due to sickness or old age.
A sick person may be anointed before surgery whenever a serious illness is the reason for the surgery.
Elderly people may be anointed if they have become notably weakened even though no serious illness is present.
…The sacrament can be repeated if the sick person, having recovered, again becomes gravely ill or if the condition becomes more grave during the same illness.
The sacrament is to be administered in a case of doubt whether the sick person has attained the use of reason, is dangerously ill, or is dead.”